Convergent evolution is the independent origin of similar phenotypes in distantly related species when convergence results from natural selection, it provides some of the best evidence for adaptive evolution in nature because it represents replicated examples of the same, or at least very similar, adaptation arising from separate selection events. Fundamentals of plant morphology with emphasis on continuum morphology and process morphology it can be defined in a narrow sense as referring only to external form, in contrast to anatomy that refers to internal form and symposia have been organized around this topic in a symposium entitled divergence and convergence of sciences and. The convergence in external morphology of sharks, penguins, and porpoises is attributed to selection pressures that are common to these groups examples of morphological (shape) convergence (come together) are. External vertical bony ridge on the labial surface of the canines forms facial contours morphology study of form and shape as of the teeth triangular shape at the convergence of the cusp ridges and is associated with termination of the triangular grooves. Plant morphology or phytomorphology is the study of the physical form and external structure of plants this is usually considered distinct from plant anatomy, which is the study of the internal structure of plants, especially at the microscopic level plant morphology is useful in the visual identification of plants.
Morphology is one of the life sciences in linguistics, morphology refers to the patterns of word formations in a given language it also looks at the structure of words (including parts of speech), and the rules about how words are formed in that language. Antarctic convergence) and they probably extend into regionsofthesoutheastatlantic,southwestandsoutheast geographic variation in external morphology of north pacific and southern hemisphere blue whales (balaenoptera musculus) morphology of the blowhole (kato et al, 2002) additionally, the range distributions of both types are. On the difﬁculty of co-optimizing morphology and control in evolved virtual creatures nick cheney1, josh bongard2, vytas sunspiral3 and hod lipson4 1department of biological statistics and computational biology, cornell university 2department of computer science, university of vermont 3intelligent systems division, nasa ames, sgt inc 4department of mechanical engineering, columbia university. The convergence in external morphology of sharks, penguins, and porpoises is attributed to a reduced genetic variability in these groups b selection pressures that are common to these groups c reproductive isolation of these groups d identical genes in all three groups e use and disuse of the limbs.
The convergence of the introduced algorithms on different dendritic geometries in sect 4, where we also compare the delay and attenuation of voltage spread on four reconstructed dendritic morphologies. Lastly, we suggest that the convergence in morphology of notograptus and congrogadine pseudochromids is due to a specific selective regime (similar specialized feeding behaviour) and provides an example of adaptation in the historical sense of coddington (1988) and larson & losos (1996. Apart from the plesiomorphic morphology of the brain inherent to both phytosaurs and crocodyliformes, both groups share a dorsoventrally flattened and rostrocaudally expanded morphology of the vestibular apparatus of the inner ear.
Convergence in external morphology of sharks, penguins, and porpoises is attributed to (a) reduced genetic variability in these groups (b) selection pressures that are common to each group. Convergence is often associated with similarity of function, as in the evolution of wings in birds, bats, and flies the shark (a fish) and the dolphin (a mammal) are much alike in external morphology their similarities are due to convergence, since they have evolved independently. One two three many the convergence in external morphology of sharks, penguins, and porpoises is attributed to selection pressures that are common to these groups two three many the convergence in external morphology of sharks, penguins, and porpoises is attributed to selection pressures that are common to these groups. Morphology and evolution of the insect abdomen: with special reference to developmental patterns and their bearings upon systematics focuses on the morphology and evolution of the skeletal structures of the insect abdomen and the internal reproductive system. Phytomorphology or plant morphology is the field of study that studies the physical form and external structure of plants this is different from plant anatomy which studies the internal structure of plants at even the microscopic level.
Wildekamp & haas (1992) also used characters of external morphology with great plasticity among aplocheiloid killifishes to diagnose paranothobranchius: numerous irregularly arranged scales on the longitudinal series, large mouth with strong dentition, long head, male hump, and posteriorly placed dorsal and anal fins. Language convergence is a type of linguistic change in which languages come to structurally resemble one another as a result of prolonged language contact and mutual interference in contrast to other contact-induced language changes like creolization or the formation of mixed languages, convergence refers to a mutual process that results in changes in all the languages involved. However, the conditions under which a common morphology repeatedly evolves may be restrictive the prevailing functional demand for eating hard-bodied prey is the generation of a forceful bite to crush the external shell or carapace so that the prey may be extracted a pattern that contributes to imperfect convergence some aspects of.
In the convergence of toxicology and epidemiology: a primer on –omic technologies and general external internal factors are those that are unique to the individual, and specific external factors include occupational exposures and lifestyle factors • body morphology • individual’s genome • inflammation domains of the. Lice (insecta: phthiraptera) have long been considered to compose a monophyletic group of insects on the basis of external morphological characteristics. Biological morphology as well as linguistic morphology are reponsible for studiying the internal and external structures of an organism or system and the internal structures of words biological morphology is a discipline of biology linguisti.
Morphology and identi cation of the nal instar nymphs of three cicadas 35 china, in june, 2012, and at ningshan county in mts qinling, shaanxi province, china, in july and august, 2012, respectively. The convergence in external morphology of sharks, penguins, and porpoises is attributed to selection pressures that are common to these groups genes that are located on the same chromosome are all of these an incompletely dominant gene controls the color of chickens so that b produces black, ebb produces a slate-gray color called blue, and ebb produces splashed white. Plant morphology or phytomorphology is the study of the physical form and external structure of plants this is usually considered distinct from plant anatomy, which is the study of the internal structure of plants, especially at the microscopic level plant morphology is useful in the.